Electrical Engineering Tutorial
All data in MATLAB is in the form of a matrix or array. But the data that we use in MATLAB software are of different classes. We can make matrices and arrays of any types of these data classes. Two of the MATLAB classes, structures and cell arrays, provide a way to store dissimilar types of data in the same array. There are 15 fundamental data classes in MATLAB. We can develop our own data types. Different data types require different amounts of storage space, the smallest type is ‘logical’, which requires only 1 byte. By default, MATLAB stores all numeric variables as double-precision floating-point values and text as characters. Numeric data types are mainly of two types: Floating-Point Numbers and Integers. Double – This is the default numeric data type. It uses double precision. It can be created by simple assignment operator. ‘double( )’ command is used to convert other data types to double class. Single – Any value stored as a single requires 32 bits. ‘single( )’ command is used to convert the double type data to single data type.
Requires less storage space than double. ‘whos’ command can be used to display the attributes including class of a variable. ‘isfloat( )’ command is used to verify that a variable is a floating-point number. It returns logical 1 if the number is a floating-point number and logical 0 otherwise. Integer – This class is used to represent the signed and unsigned whole numbers. Based on the size used (1, 2, 4 and 8 bytes), there are four types of signed and unsigned classes. 32(x) % int command can be used to convert other data types to integers. MATALB store the text as character data type. Strings are represented as vectors of characters. MATLAB identifies the characters in single quotation marks as text and such variables are saved as character data class. ‘char( )’ command is used to convert to character array. Convert the integers between 32-127 into a the printable ASCII characters. The logical data type is used to store Boolean values, true or false states using the numbers 1 and 0, respectively. Output of some MATLAB functions or operators will be logical values, those variables are stored as logical data class. ‘logical( )’ – Convert numeric values to logical.
Any nonzero element of A is converted to logical 1 (true) and zeros are converted to logical 0 (false). This data type is used to store the tables which have multiple columns of different data types. Tables consist of rows and column-oriented variables. Each variable in a table can have a different data type and a different size with the one restriction that each variable must have the same number of rows. The data may be stored or in a text file or in a spreadsheet. Working with tables will be discussed in detail in another post. Structure is a data type used to store information like a database. It groups related data using data containers called fields. Each field can contain data of any type or size. Access data in a structure using dot notation of the form structName.fieldName. 1 ,value1, field2 ,value2,…. The argument field is the name of the field and the value input argument can be any data type, such as a numeric, logical, character, or cell array. A cell array is a data type with indexed data containers called cells, where each cell can contain any type of data. Cell arrays commonly contain either lists of text strings, combinations of text and numbers, or numeric arrays of different sizes.
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